If you are a new welding engineer or inspector, there are many fine points and insights in the construction sector. The following list contains methods that are used during the execution process as well as after completion to inspect welding projects. With the exception of Charpy and Destructive testing, the remainder are all Non-Destructive Testing or NDT methods such as Charpy V notch testing, Destructive Testing, Visual Inspection, Hardness testing, Ultrasonic testing, Eddy-Current Testing, Radiography, Liquid-Penetrant testing, and Magnetic Particle testing.

Type of Weld Inspection and Their Application

1 – Visual Inspection

This is the least expensive, simplest, and easiest method using the human eye and a few tools plus it is the most effective of the welding inspection methods. This method is done in a workshop or field while the welding is being done. The things that are visually checked include the welder’s certificate, slag removal, joint preparation, weather conditions, current used, and condition of the electrode.

2- Magnetic Particle Testing

This test is used to find any surface or barely subsurface defects in a weld. This test is accomplished by passing an electric current through a weld so that a magnetic field is formed. Particles of iron are then applied to the magnetic field and if there are any defects, the particles of iron will build up around the defect, which shows where the defect is and why it happened.

3 – Liquid-Penetrant Testing

This test will detect defects in the surface of the weld like porosity and hairline cracks. This test is accomplished by the use of a liquid penetrant that is applied to the surface of the weld. A developer is then applied that will show if any defects are visible.

4 – Ultrasonic Testing

This test is accomplished by the use of sound vibrations, which are then transmitted through the welded joint. The signals received on a glass screen will determine if there are any defects in the joint of the weld. Other detectable things an ultrasound test can find are how thick the joint weld is, blowholes, lack of penetration, and cracking.

5 – Eddy Current Testing

This test will show extremely small cracks and is accomplished by the use of a circular coil that carries alternating currents, which is placed near the weld. The alternating currents will create a magnetic field, which will interact with the weld and in turn, generate an eddy current. If there is a flaw present, there will be a change in the eddy current, which will be measured by a receiver coil.

6 – Radiography

Also called the X-Ray method (electric source) and Gamma-Ray method (radioactive source), it is a non-destructive testing process that is used to check the internal structure of welds. A film is produced by using an iridium isotope that passes through the weld. The things that are inspected by using this method are porosity, material inclusion, lack of fusion, cracks, excessive penetration, and concavity.

7 – Hardness Test

This method is accomplished by hitting a specific load on the indicator that is placed on the weld. The resulting indentation size is referred to as a hardness measuring table.

8 – Destructive Testing

This test is a destructive test that is accomplished by cutting the completed weld into pieces, this is per the code for root bend, face bend, tensile test, and side bend. It is used to locate slag inclusion, porosity, and undercutting defects in welds and is very effective.

Whether you’re a hobbyist or a professional, you’re likely to have questions about a technique or project you haven’t tried yet. You can start looking for answers here, or just browse around for project ideas like the ones below.

7 Welding Project Ideas for Beginners

If you are considering welding as a hobby or wondering if welding would make a good career choice, consider this fun tip: You can actually make some of the equipment you will need for your shop. Shop equipment makes great welding projects, and It’s a good way for beginners to practice basic welding skills and, if you have some experience with welding, making your own equipment can save you some money. Here are seven items you can build:

  • A welding table. This is a very useful addition to your welding shop. The table can have pipe or angle iron legs with a heavy-duty top welded over them. Be sure to reinforce the table with a box frame of flat iron around the bottom.
  • A hand truck. This is very useful for transporting large pieces of equipment or finished projects. Some pipe, wheels, and a metal plate are all you need. • A welding rod storage box makes a convenient place to put welding rods that would otherwise roll around on your workspace. Find a big piece of box iron and cut it to a length that will hold the welding rods upright and you can grab them easily. Then weld it to a plate of iron wide enough to support it.
  • A tool rack is easy to make with angle iron and some pipe couplings. Just drill some holes in the angle iron and weld on the pipe couplings. • While not strictly welding shop equipment, a horseshoe rack is a good way to net a few compliments from visitors. If you have a few horseshoes, you can weld them together.
  • If you have an old steel drum that you’ve never used, why not make a barbecue grill out of it? Make sure the drum is clean or reconditioned and has never held pesticides or poison. Look for a skull and crossbones on the side if you aren’t sure. To be absolutely sure, fill the drum with wood and light a fire.

In the past, most welders would never even think about TIG welding cast iron due to the unpredictability of such repairs but times have changed and it can now be done albeit with utmost care.

What Rods Should I Use for Cast Iron Welds

Welding cast iron was difficult because iron contains carbon which makes it extremely hard and suffers from cracking problems as cast iron is very brittle. Instead of bending when heated, it breaks. Nickel rods, also called Ni rods are the most preferred and popular arc welding rods for TIG welding cast iron. However, aluminum bronze is proposed as a very good choice for TIG welding cast iron. Some of the reasons this is considered the perfect choice for cast iron welding include: The high carbon content does not cause unwarranted hardening of the weld deposit. The metal cannot crack easily near the weld are because the solidifying weld metal used does not have high shrinkage stresses. The TIG welding rods, in this case, aluminum bronze, are almost as strong as steel and ensure that the welded area holds and the TIG welding cast iron happens as planned.

Tips That Make A Difference

When welded using AC, the aluminum bronze rods do not all get diluted from the iron base metal because they wet easily and thus can flow with ease. In terms of cost, the aluminum bronze TIG welding rods are much cheaper than the Nickel rods which can make TIG welding cast iron procedure pocket friendly. TIG welding cast iron requires absolute concentration and careful temperature monitoring to limit the possibility of cracks in the brittle cast iron. The process to do this effectively follows:

  1. Make sure the surface of the weld location is thoroughly cleaned to get rid of impurities like dust and rust. A clean surface will aid in ensuring a strong weld formation. The parts should then be pre-heated to prevent a possibility of the cast iron cracking. If the procedure is projected to take longer then the cast iron should continue to be heated, at a constant rate during this duration, since it is very sensitive to temperature shifts.
  2. For the TIG welding cast iron procedure, select the aluminum bronze if the iron being welded will not experience further heating during its use afterward but if it will, go with the Nickel filler rods as they can withstand heat, an example of this is engines. The use of low current is recommended to discourage residual pressure and stress from building up. Do many short welds instead of a continuous one to regulate the temperature then hit the weld with a hammer to relieve the accumulating pressure.
  3. After completing the welding, the iron should be left to cool down slowly to prevent hardening. To achieve this efficiently, the part should be put in an oven then the temperature can be lowered slowly as time goes by. This constitutes a perfect TIG welding cast iron mission.

This article focuses on Diversified Machine Systems – a 3 and 5 axis CNC Router and Machine Center Manufacturer, located in Colorado Springs, CO. Diversified Machine Systems specializes in the manufacturing of CNC Routing Systems for various industries and use on various materials. DMS Machines are used worldwide, by many different organizations, industries, and governments.

What is a 5-Axis CNC Router?

A 5 axis CNC router is a machine that works on wood and aluminum composite. It can also be used on foams, plastics, polymers and other materials. Basically, this router works by cutting portions of the material to create unique shapes and designs. Unlike manual routers, this makes accurate and efficient carvings and engravings in just a short period of time. If you want to avoid the risk of making mistakes when cutting material, let the router do the job for you.

What’s the Cost?

A 5 axis CNC router can be quite expensive. However, buying this kind of router can be your greatest investment, especially if you want your business to grow. Over time, you’ll be able to make your investment back because it won’t be difficult to increase your productivity. In many ways, a router helps businesses save more money because they don’t have to hire extra labor. With little supervision, the router will cut accurate details over and over again.

It is not easy to operate a 5 axis CNC router. However, if you are thinking of buying this machine, you do not have to be afraid of operating it. A computer that interprets commands to make a design controls the machine. When these commands are logged into the computer, the machine will carve images and engravings as ordered. Most of the time, the router is used to make designs for cabinets, drawers, and doors. In some cases, they can also be used for making interesting designs in plastic, steel, foam, and aluminum.

Manual engraving is a skill that many people have. However, if you have a commercial business that requires fast-paced production, manual engraving may not be enough. To support increasing demand from clients, you have to use a 5 axis router. This will not only make accurate carvings, but it will also help you keep up with orders. This machine carves quickly and accurately. It can also make 3D engravings that many people love.

Common 5-Axis CNC Router Features

Here are some of the Features and common values available from a 5-Axis CNC Router:

  • High Precision Cycloidal Gearsets on Rotary Axes
  • Heavy Duty Tube Frame Construction
  • Spinning Ballnut/Fixed Screw-on X & Y Axes for Increased Rigidity
  • 36″ Z Axis
  • Fagor 8055C Controller
  • 11″ Color LCD Monitor
  • 5 Meg Part Program Storage
  • DNC
  • Part Program Graphics
  • 1.75′ Thick Machined Aluminum Table Tops
  • 35 mm Star Linear Profiled Ways on all Axes
  • Safety Guarding
  • Closed-Loop Brushless AC Servo Motors
  • Inverted Z-Axis Counter Balance Cylinder

Other Additional Features Are:

  • Automatic Tool Changer
  • 10 HP ISO 30 Spindle
  • 15 HP HSK 63F Spindle
  • 48″ Z Axis
  • Automatic Lubrication to Ballnuts and Way Bearings
  • Automatic Vacuum Valve Control
  • Remote Operators Station
  • High Precision Fixture Table
  • Automatic Tool Height Sensor
  • Remote Teach Pendant Programmer
  • 5 Axis Tool Length Compensation (TCP)
  • 1 GB Compact Flash Card With TCP/IP Network Connection
  • CPU Turbo

CNC milling is a very precise machining system that is automated and follows data programmed to specification. Any trained technician can use any CNC milling machine and accomplish the machined part requirement per the program this is in the CNC milling machine. This versatility can be utilized anywhere in the world with a proper environment for the CNC milling machine can perform their programmed operations to accomplish the tasks programmed. CNC milling is the worldwide accepted way of producing precision machined parts per blueprint engineered drawings.

CNC milling machines are durable and the CNC milling cams that are made per programming specification can produce machined parts by the hundreds with reliability and compliance to specific quality control tolerances that are programmed to the CNC milling machines. The CNC technicians can operate the normal CNC machines operating process, which they are accustomed to running, and the CNC milling machines. The CNC milling machines will follow the CNC cams that have been installed during the setup of the CNC milling machine.

Where I Can Find Precise CNC Machines

CNC milling machines can be found all over the industrialized world. These CNC milling machines are self-contained and can be shipped all over the world. The machined parts made by these CNC milling machines can be shipped anywhere the customer needs them. Corporations that use these CNC milling machines very much fulfill the marketplace need for CNC milling machined parts, for products and services for worldwide corporate marketplace demand. CNC machines are Cam operated and computer-operated systems this can be a valuable resource for all diversified companies worldwide.

How Precise Can They Be

CNC milling can be programmed for general and specific tolerances that fulfill the different requirements of the industries of the world. The tolerances can be from one-eighth of an inch to one-thousandth of an inch. These CNC milling machines can make machined parts beyond the imagination; this versatility can be used everywhere and for everything. This concept helps the CNC milling companies adapt to any marketing for diversified industries in their local community and to the neighboring countries and contribute to the worldwide demand for CNC milling machined parts. Industrialized areas of the world are wearing out parts and the need for good quality CNC milling machined parts are forever in demand. This is an ongoing process throughout the world.

Modernization of Machining

I cannot imagine the world without the CNC milling machines, to crank out production of machined parts to comply with the ever-pressing need for precision machined parts for any machine, auto, airplane, industrialized equipment, and the list goes on and on. The CNC milling machine has earned its place as an accepted way of accomplishing the nearly impossible task of supplying precise and consistent supply to corporations all over the industrialized centers of the world. CNC milling is an automated process that generates a machined part to meet the specific needs of the diverse machines of the world.

CNC milling has been an accepted method of machining for several years and has evolved with modern technology. This modernization of machining has made CNC milling a complete success and has kept up with the industrialized world of today.

The manufacturing of industrial parts has evolved greatly over the last century. There was a time when all items were at least partially created by hand regardless of how many need to be manufactured. Assembly lines, new metals and materials, and new forms of power eventually lead to semi-automated forms of production. Unfortunately, this type of production was very expensive and very inflexible. The later development of a numerical control machine gave manufacturers the ability to use a single machine repeatedly with the same settings to slowly create perfectly identical pieces out of metal or wood. These original machines required numerous manual adjustments and sometimes multiple operators just to generate a single part.

How CNC Changed the Game

The development of computers and other new technologies lead to the invention of the the computer numerical control (CNC) machine. This was similar to the original numerical control machines except that a computer allowed the operator to enter in a sequence of commands that would be executed with unmatched precision. A single CNC machine gives companies the ability to develop a program that can be executed in exactly the same fashion automatically at any time. The ability to develop a program ahead of time with other pieces of software allowed for rapid prototyping of new products and a reduction in errors and wasted materials.

One of the largest changes that a CNC machine brings to a business is the ability to reduce the amount of staff required for creating parts. A single skilled operator can program and maintain one or more units. This can result in a single worker overseeing an array of machines that are constantly producing parts. A CNC machine is also much more dynamic than previous types of manufacturing tools and can be adjusted to cut a variety of materials or to make a wide range of different patterns, holes, or designs.

Current Trend on CNC

Modern companies are able to use a CNC machine to create highly detailed parts that are used in many different industries. Everything from engine parts to surgical tools can be created with the right CNC program and materials. New technologies have allowed machines to continue to evolve. More efficient cutting techniques, more advanced computer control systems, and better machine designs take the process of generating parts automatically to a new level. The newest machines are able to run for days at a time without maintenance and are capable of delicate work that was once only achievable by hand.

The basic question that I encounter is commonly by a person who’s looking for a way to learn how to MIG weld. Whether they’re unaccustomed to MIG welding or are just looking to learn some new MIG welding techniques, there is never an end to these questions.

I don’t mind though. Do you know why? The reason is that MIG welding embodies among the most valuable and coveted welding techniques in the industry. Once you figure out how to MIG weld, you are well on your way to becoming a very proficient welder. I will begin these articles with a bit of background info on MIG welding and then will discuss a few basic MIG welding techniques.

MIG Basics

Properly called metal inert gas welding, MIG welding is a type of gas metal arc welding (referred to as GMAW). MIG welding applies an electric flow to provide an electrical arc between a consumable wire electrode in the welding gun and the workpieces. Shielding gas is likewise employed in order to protect the weld from atmospheric gases that may interfere with its quality.

How long has MIG welding been around? It was produced in the 1940s as a way to easily and with efficiency produce equipment and arms during World War 2. It was (and still is) preferred in welding shops because of the ability to learn how to MIG weld quickly, and also the low cost and time tied in with it. Somebody with an introductory understanding of welding should be able to learn how to MIG weld and run good beads with just a couple of hours of practice. MIG welding is also quite popular because of the low investment cost – a new, quality machine for your garage or workshop prices approximately $500. As good as that price is, you are still able to find new ones cheaper, but you definitely get what you pay for there.

What Welding Techniques Exist

Now that you have a basic understanding of MIG welding, I believe it’s time to go on to some MIG welding techniques. As important as background knowledge is once you’re discovering how to MIG weld, it needs to be coupled with practice. These MIG welding techniques will get you on your way to creating strong, visually appealing welds.

For someone first ascertaining how to MIG weld, a zig weaving design is probably the best starting point of the MIG welding techniques. The zigzag pattern can either be done as push (welding away from you), or pull (welding toward you), and is executed precisely as it sounds. Your goal is to make even, steady zigzags across the joint of the two workpieces. This is an absolutely easy design to learn and get quite effective at very quickly. Using this MIG welding technique, you would generally pause at the end of each zigzag (on the sides of the joint) for a brief second in order to help spread out the weld. The key to these is to make certain that you get a steady rhythm going when working with equally thick workpieces. Once you have become familiar with this welding design, you are ready to move on to how to MIG weld using a slightly more advanced MIG welding technique.

The next technique is a circular design. For someone who is learning how to MIG weld, this technique is still relatively basic. It does take a little bit more practice and concentration than the zigzag pattern, but it is still a very achievable figure. For this process, you’ll weld in slow, circular motions. Depending on the workpieces, and the weld you’d like to create, you’ll be able to either use small, precise circles or a larger, more encompassing pattern. After a little practice with these MIG welding techniques, you are know how to MIG weld nearly any basic project that you wish to do.

Final Thoughts

While no single article can teach you all of the information you need to know about how to MIG weld, this should have been a good basis for your entry into the world of MIG Welding. Keep practicing and you will find success in your efforts.

The letters of CNC mean Computer Numerical Control and this process of controlling the machines through the computer has been around since the 1970s. There are very few people who have heard this term but this concept has affected every form of the process of manufacturing that you may know for a long period of time. There are different forms of manufacturing that are using this concept of working with the control of the programs but still there is not much knowledge among people for this. The CNC Machining is therefore becoming more and more important as the need for such a system is growing. Here are the ways CNC improves efficiency.

CNC Control on Conventional Machines

The conventional machines used to do work that was not very fast and so the concept of the CNC Machining came up for faster production and you will find the operator that used to operate the conventional machines are not much required for the CNC period. The machines work on their own and they are guided by the program that the computers control them with to bring much more perfection in work and faster timing. The workpiece loading in the machines is automated. The CNC operators often are few in numbers and they do other things regarding the CNC machines but need to be there to supervise the whole thing. The machines keep running till the whole work is completed.

Motion Control and Production

The CNC machines have got this feature of motion control. The two axes of different directions of motions are measured and these axes of motions are sometimes linear and sometimes rotary or work along a circular line. The different types of such machines bring about changes in the industry as the production is raised and the requirement is filled fast without any deficiency. The machine’s efficiency is counted on how many axes it has got and it gets complex on the increase of its number of axes. These axes cause the motion that they need and there are also different types of drilling and turning off the machines that can be achieved by the machines.

Cutting Tools and the Precision of Axes

When the CNC Milling machines are used for the specific work that they are required for, they also give a better performance and brings in the foreground the usage of horizontal and vertical machines that are designed for special work. The positioning of all cutting tools must be proper though the operation may be horizontal or vertical. The larger machines are for working with larger components and the smaller ones work with smaller ones. These machines are also used to work with the a bigger range of components and there are factories that have CNC Milling machines that are used with 4 axis or 5 axis machine centers.

Advanced Software

There are machines that are controlled by software and the updates of the software are important for the machines to work efficiently. The updates or the improved versions of the software give the machine more precision and better performance. The machine operator should be proficient with the G-code programming and the different other conversational programming. The CNC Mill are therefore the most efficient and commonly used machines that are controlled by the software that are for advanced control for better production.

There is a warm, hospitable beauty that is unique to a country-style home. More than the inviting colors, fresh look, and happy atmosphere, there is energetic tranquility that courses through the home and welcomes anyone that steps inside. The ability to decorate is in itself a beautiful thing because it allows you to communicate yourself through the venue of your home. When you are decorating a country home, one of the tools that can help you communicate clearly is the use of wrought iron in your decorating scheme.

Decoration Ideas

There are many options for using wrought iron throughout the living areas of your house; one of these options is the use of wall hangings. Several different types of wall hangings can be considered, ranging from wall sconces that hold candles, to the decorative designs of wrought iron grilles and medallions that serve as three-dimensional pictures. You can also find wrought iron clocks and even shelving that is perfect for holding lightweight books, candles, or figurines. Hanging planters are great for adding both class and color to your décor, and coat and key holders are a practical addition as well as an attractive one. Little artistic iron keys are easy to find and look great hanging on iron key holders when suspended by a satin ribbon looped through the handle.

Curtain rods are a great subtle way to add wrought iron into your décor and can be used in any room. Another subtle accent can be the handles on your furniture-changing them to wrought iron as well will add a tone of delicate consistency throughout your home. If you have blankets you would like to display in a bedroom or living area, look for a wrought iron towel holder that is free standing. These have both utilitarian and aesthetic benefits. You might also look for basket tree, which looks like an actual iron tree with arms for hanging small, decorative baskets you wish to display. If you have a fireplace, be sure to choose a screen that incorporates wrought iron in its design, and try to find a matching fire tool set and log holder as well.

Small iron accessories can also be effective in country home décor. Delicate candle holders and platforms are classic and easy to find, and if you have a large picture to display, look for a wrought iron picture stand to hold it up. Lanterns, clocks, free standing crosses, and other figurines shaped from iron are easy to find in almost any decorating store, and look great on a shelf or table.

Accessories such as a hanging pot rack, chandelier, and wine rack can go a long way in carrying the country theme into the kitchen. Smaller pieces such as napkin and paper towel holders, cookbook stands, and soup spoon holders can be tied in as well. Wrought iron spice racks look great standing on the counter, and plate racks hung on the wall add a nice touch as well.

Wrought iron bathroom accessories such as a towel rack, toilet paper holder, and shower rod can tie in the country theme to your lavatory, and a simple accent such as a candle holder can contribute as well. If you have a garden or patio, consider adding a wrought iron table and chair set, along with a garden trellis or decorative fence that you can use to support a flowering vine. Window planters and hanging baskets are other great iron pieces that will help carry your theme outdoors.

Final Thoughts

Decorating your house with wrought iron is simple to do, as you have many options available to you, and they are all easy to find. Discount stores like WalMart and Target have plenty of wrought iron accessories, and stores like Kirklands and Garden Ridge will have a wide variety as well. Wrought iron is a great addition to a country home, and very effective in tying your stylistic theme effortlessly from room to room. The result will be a warm, hospitable house that you can’t help but love coming home to!

Anyone who has experience with fireplaces knows that burning wood directly on the floor of the fireplace doesn’t really work. A good fire needs good air circulation, so it’s almost imperative that the logs are lifted off the ground a few inches. There are many types of fireplace accessories out there that will solve this problem, although andirons are usually the best and most attractive option.

Using Wrought Iron Andirons

Many people use a traditional wrought iron log rack in their fireplace. They work well, they’re sturdy, and they can be nice to look at. Wrought iron andirons have one major advantage over fireplace racks, however. Since andirons are not attached to each other, you can move them closer or further apart from each other depending on the size of your logs.

Andirons have some major design advantages as well. Since they’re always made with tall front support beams, they can really become the focal point of your room. People’s eyes are always naturally attracted to the fireplace, and having beautiful wrought iron andirons framing your hearth can really look impressive.

There is one final benefit of using wrought iron andirons that many people never consider. Iron has the ability to absorb and retain quite a lot of heat. Even when your fire has gone out, your andirons will remain hot and will continue to heat the room. In this sense, they’re also great for energy conservation and for keeping your room warm for longer periods of time.